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JOURNAL ARTICLE

Long-term antimicrobial suppression prevents treatment failure of streptococcal periprosthetic joint infection

Nora Renz, Anastasia Rakow, Michael Müller, Carsten Perka, Andrej Trampuz
Journal of Infection 2019, 79 (3): 236-244
31310778

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of oral antimicrobial suppression on the outcome of streptococcal periprosthetic joint infection (PJI).

METHODS: Consecutive patients with streptococcal PJI receiving antimicrobial suppression for >6 months were prospectively included and compared to a retrospective control group without suppression. Outcome was assessed with Kaplan-Meier analysis and compared by the log-rank Mantel-Cox test. Multivariate analysis was used to identify factors associated with treatment failure.

RESULTS: Of 69 streptococcal PJI episodes (37 knee, 31 hip and one shoulder PJI), 43 (62%) were caused by beta-hemolytic streptococci and 26 (38%) by viridans group streptococci. Debridement and prosthesis retention was performed in 27 (39%), one-stage exchange in 5 (7%), multi-stage exchange in 31 (44%) and prosthesis removal in 6 patients (9%). 24 patients (35%) were treated with antimicrobial suppression receiving oral amoxicillin (n = 22), doxycycline (n = 1) or clindamycin (n = 1). After a median follow-up of 13 months (range, 0.5-111 months), 38 of 65 patients (58%) were infection-free. Suppressive antimicrobial treatment was associated with higher success rate compared with no suppression (93% vs. 57%, p = 0.002), representing the only significant independent factor preventing treatment failure.

CONCLUSIONS: Long-term antimicrobial suppression was associated with significantly better treatment outcome and should be strongly considered in streptococcal PJI.

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