Successful Outcome in Patients with Fanconi Anemia Undergoing T Cell-Replete Mismatched Related Donor Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Using Reduced-Dose Cyclophosphamide Post-Transplantation

Mouhab Ayas, Khawar Siddiqui, Abdullah Al-Jefri, Ali Al-Ahmari, Ibrahim Ghemlas, Hawazen Al-Saedi, Awatif Alanazi, Rafat Jafri, Mohamad F Ayas, Amal Al-Seraihi
Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation 2019, 25 (11): 2217-2221
Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) has been shown to restore normal hematopoiesis in patients with Fanconi anemia (FA), with excellent results in matched related donor HCT. Outcomes of alternative donor HCT are less favorable, however. In patients without FA, several reports have documented stable engraftment and/or a low risk of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) using unmanipulated HLA-mismatched related donors and post-HCT cyclophosphamide (PT-CY) for GVHD prophylaxis. Data on the use of this approach in patients with FA are scarce, and thus we launched a study of HLA-mismatched related donor HCT in these patient. Here we report our findings in 19 patients. The conditioning was fludarabine 30 mg/m2 /day for 5 days, antithymocyte globulin 5 mg/kg/day for 4 days, and total body irradiation (total dose, 200 cGy). GVHD prophylaxis was cyclosporine and mycophenolate and reduced doses of PT-CY, 25 mg/kg, on days +3 and +5. All patients exhibited absolute neutrophil count recovery. Grade III-IV acute GVHD occurred in 3 patients, and chronic GVHD occurred in 1 patient. At a mean follow-up of 38.3 ± 5.8 months, the 5-year probability of overall survival for our patients was 89.2% ± 7.2%. The regimen was well tolerated; hemorrhagic cystitis occurred in 7 patients, and severe mucositis occurred in 5 patients. There were 2 deaths; the primary cause of death was severe GVHD in 1 patient and leukemia recurrence in the other. We conclude that in patients with FA lacking a matched related donor, the use of mismatched related HCT with low-dose PT-CY is a viable option; it is well tolerated, with a high rate of engraftment and an acceptable incidence of GVHD.

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