Endothelial Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy and Alzheimer's Disease

Rebecca Parodi-Rullán, Je Yeong Sone, Silvia Fossati
Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD 2019 July 8
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent form of dementia. Cerebrovascular dysfunction is one of the earliest events in the pathogenesis of AD, as well as in vascular and mixed dementias. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), the deposition of amyloid around cerebral vessels, is observed in up to 90% of AD patients and in approximately 50% of elderly individuals over 80 years of age. CAA is a strong contributor to vascular dysfunction in AD. CAA-laden brain vessels are characterized by dysfunctional hemodynamics and leaky blood-brain barrier (BBB), contributing to clearance failure and further accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) in the cerebrovasculature and brain parenchyma. Mitochondrial dysfunction is increasingly recognized as an important early initiator of the pathogenesis of AD and CAA. The objective of this review is to discuss the effects of Aβ on cerebral microvascular cell function, focusing on its impact on endothelial mitochondria. After introducing CAA and its etiology and genetic risk factors, we describe the pathological relationship between cerebrovascular amyloidosis and brain microvascular endothelial cell dysfunction, critically analyzing its roles in disease progression, hypoperfusion, and BBB integrity. Then, we focus on discussing the effect of Aβ challenge on endothelial mitochondrial dysfunction pathways, and their contribution to the progression of neurovascular dysfunction in AD and dementia. Finally, we report potential pharmacological and non-pharmacological mitochondria-targeted therapeutic strategies which may help prevent or delay cerebrovascular failure.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"