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Massive Lower Gastrointestinal Bleeding Due to Fulminant Necrotizing Amebic Colitis: A Diagnostic and Therapeutic Challenge.

Acute fulminant necrotizing amebic colitis rarely presents with massive lifethreatening lower gastrointestinal bleeding without diarrhea. Diagnosis is difficult as colonoscopy is suboptimal due to active bleeding, stool testing is often negative and a positive serology cannot confirm the diagnosis. We herein report a case of a 39-year-old male who presented with profuse bleeding per rectum, without associated significant antecedent history of fever or diarrhea. Colonoscopy was inconclusive as active bleeding obscured the vision. Computed tomography of abdomen revealed non-specific thickening of the caecum. Emergency laparotomy with right hemicolectomy and temporary ileostomy was performed. Microscopic examination of colonic mucosa revealed Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites with erythrophagocytosis suggestive of fulminant amebic colitis. Intravenous metronidazole was given subsequently and patient recovered completely. Ileocolonic anastomosis was done after closing the ileostomy three months later. This case highlights this exceedingly rare presentation of fulminant amebic colitis which poses a diagnostic challenge and can be life threatening without early surgical intervention.

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