Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders, Epstein-Barr virus infection, and disease in solid organ transplantation: Guidelines from the American Society of Transplantation Infectious Diseases Community of Practice.
These updated guidelines from the American Society of Transplantation Infectious Diseases Community of Practice review the diagnosis, management, and prevention of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) and other Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) syndromes after solid organ transplantation. PTLD are a heterogeneous spectrum of predominantly B-cell disorders, often extra-nodal, with complex distinct pathogeneses and variable clinical presentations determined by pathologic subtype. Recent epidemiologic studies report a decrease in early EBV-positive (+) PTLD and an increase in late EBV-negative (-) PTLD. Pre-transplant EBV-seronegativity and primary EBV infection, often from donor-transmitted infection, are an important risk factors for EBV syndromes and early EBV + PTLD. Low-quality evidence supports preemptive prevention strategies for early EBV + PTLD in EBV-seronegative recipients that involve EBV DNA measurement in peripheral blood using assays requiring further result harmonization, combined with interventions to lower viral load. Reduction in immunosuppression (RIS) is the best validated intervention. WHO pathology classification of a tissue biopsy remains the gold standard for PTLD diagnosis; optimal staging procedures are uncertain. Treatment of CD20+ PTLD with the response-dependent sequential use of RIS, rituximab, and cytotoxic chemotherapy is recommended. Evidence gaps requiring future research and alternate treatment strategies including immunotherapy are highlighted.
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