Tyrosine kinase inhibitors and immune checkpoint inhibitors-induced thyroid disorders.
Recently, tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) and immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICPIs) have emerged as new classes of anticancer therapies. Although generally considered less toxic than cytotoxic chemotherapy, these new drugs can cause significant unanticipated side effects including thyroid dysfunction. This review provides a literature assessment of thyroid dysfunctions induced by TKI and ICPIs. We intend to define for these two classes the frequency of thyroid involvement, the potential mechanisms that result in this toxicity, the clinical-biological impact and the therapeutic management. Detection of thyroid dysfunction requires monitoring of TSH, in combination with free T4 if needed and, depending on the clinical impact and the kinetics of biological abnormalities, starting symptomatic treatment of hyperthyroidism and/or correcting hypothyroidism.
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