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Who Would Have Benefitted from the Prehospital Use of Resuscitative Endovascular Balloon Occlusion of the Aorta (REBOA)? An Autopsy Study

Reynold Henry, Kazuhide Matsushima, Rachel N Henry, Victor Wong, Zachary Warriner, Aaron Strumwasser, Christopher P Foran, Kenji Inaba, Todd E Rasmussen, Demetrios Demetriades
Journal of the American College of Surgeons 2019 June 5

BACKGROUND: Resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA) has been increasingly used as part of damage control resuscitation for patients with non-compressible truncal hemorrhage. We hypothesized that there might be a select group of patients that could have benefited from prehospital placement of the REBOA.

STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective cohort study including patients who presented to a Level I trauma center with cardiac arrest between January 2014 and March 2018. The findings of a full autopsy were reviewed for the details of internal injuries. A patient was determined to be a REBOA candidate if the patient sustained abdominal organ injuries or pelvic fractures and no associated severe head injuries. The candidate group was compared with the non-candidate group based on prehospital vital signs and other patient characteristics. A multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to identify certain prehospital factors associated with candidacy for prehospital REBOA.

RESULTS: A total of 198 patients met our inclusion criteria. Of those, 27 (13.6%) patients were deemed REBOA candidates. Median Injury Severity Score was 22 (interquartile range 17 to 29). Patients in the candidate group were more likely to have a Glasgow Coma Scale score ≥9 (48% vs 15%; p = 0.012), oxygen saturation >90% (56% vs 35%; p = 0.03), and systolic blood pressure <90 mmHg (48% vs 26%; p = 0.04) in the field. Logistic regression showed that these 3 clinical parameters of prehospital vital signs were significantly associated with REBOA candidacy.

CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that >10% of trauma patients who presented with cardiac arrest could have benefitted from prehospital REBOA. Additional prospective studies are warranted to validate the use of field vital signs in selecting candidates.


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