Interstitial Pneumonia with Autoimmune Features and Undifferentiated Connective Tissue Disease

Andrea K Chernau, Paolo M Leone, Jeffrey J Swigris
Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2019, 40 (2): 271-277
In 2015, a multidisciplinary task force comprising pulmonologists, rheumatologists, pathologists, and radiologists representing the European Respiratory Society and American Thoracic Society published a diagnostic classification schema for individuals with interstitial lung disease and autoimmune features who did not meet criteria for a defined connective tissue disease. The term interstitial pneumonia with autoimmune features (IPAF) was applied. Classification criteria are often nonspecific, but up to 90% of subjects with IPAF have serological evidence for autoimmunity (particularly (+) antinuclear antibodies). Distinguishing patients with IPAF from idiopathic pulmonary disorders may be difficult. The natural history and appropriate management of IPAF have not been clarified, as data are largely limited to retrospective studies. In this review, we discuss the salient clinical, serologic, histologic, and radiographic features of IPAF and discuss an approach to management.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"