Complications of silicone Y stents placed due to malignant airway stenosis

Zafer Aktaş, Ayperi Öztürk, Aydın Yılmaz, Derya Kızılgöz, Gülşah Yurtseven
Tüberküloz Ve Toraks 2019, 67 (1): 22-30

Introduction: Malignant central airway obstruction around the main carina often requires placement of Y‑shaped stents. In this study, we aimed to determine the safety of silicone Y stents placed around the main carina in the malignant airway obstruction by examining the long term complications, emergence times and treatment approaches of complications.

Materials and Methods: Between May 2012 and July 2015, 47 silicone Y stents were placed in 46 patients with malignant external compression or mixed type stenosis around the main carina. Patient stents were placed via rigid bronchoscopy under total intravenous anesthesia in operating room conditions.

Result: In the half of the patients (23/46), stents were placed under urgent conditions due to acute respiratory failure. Stents were deployed successfully in all the patients. No procedure related deaths were observed. The median time of survival following stent insertion was 157 days. The total long-term complication rate of silicone Y stents was 28.3%. Mucostasis (8.7%) and migration (2.2%) were observed within the first month after placement of the silicone Y stents (median 18 days), stent-edge granulation tissue development (13.0%) was observed at the earliest one month (median 64, range 34-386 days) and stent-edge tumor tissue development (4.3%) were observed at the earliest 3 months (median 151, range 85-217 days). A total of 7 (15.2%) stents were removed, 2 of which were due to mucostasis and 5 of which were due to granulation tissue development. One patient's stent was replaced with a longer silicone Y stent due to stent-edge tumor tissue development.

Conclusions: The best palliative treatment of malignant tumor stenosis around the main carina is still silicone Y stent placement, but the long-term complication rate can be high. For this group of patients, bronchoscopy to be performed at the first and third months after silicone Y stent placement may provide early detection of stent-edge tissue development.


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