JOURNAL ARTICLE
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Renal allograft loss due to renal vascular thrombosis in the US pediatric renal transplantation.

BACKGROUND: Renal vascular thrombosis (RVT) is a major cause of early allograft loss in the first year following pediatric kidney transplantation. We examined recent trends in allograft loss due to RVT and identified associated risk factors.

METHODS: We identified 14,640 kidney-only transplants performed between 1995 and 2014 with follow-up until June 30, 2016, in 13,758 pediatric patients aged < 19 years from the US Renal Data System. We examined the 1-year incidence of allograft loss due to RVT by year of transplant, and plotted the trend over time. Cox proportional hazards models were used to investigate the relationship between year of transplant as well as recipient, donor, and transplant characteristics with allograft loss due to RVT.

RESULTS: The incidence of allograft loss due to RVT consistently declined among pediatric kidney transplant performed between 1995 and 2014. Among transplants performed between 1995 and 2004, 128/7542 (1.7%) allografts were lost due to RVT compared to 53/7098 (0.8%) among transplants performed between 2005 and 2014; average 1-year cumulative incidence was 1.5% (95% CI, 1.3-1.9%) and 0.6% (95% CI, 0.5-0.8%), respectively. Increased risk for allograft loss due to RVT was associated with en bloc kidney transplantation (HR, 3.42; 95% CI 1.38-8.43) and cold ischemia time ≥ 12 h (HR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.15-2.76). Interestingly, these risk factors were more prevalent in the latter decade.

CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of allograft loss due to RVT significantly and continuously declined among pediatric kidney transplants performed between 1995 and 2014. The causes for this improvement are unclear in the present analysis.

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