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Beyond "Triton": Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumors With Complete Heterologous Rhabdomyoblastic Differentiation Mimicking Spindle Cell Rhabdomyosarcoma

Jason L Hornick, G Petur Nielsen
American Journal of Surgical Pathology 2019, 43 (10): 1323-1330
31107719
Spindle cell rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is an aggressive sarcoma type with a predilection for the head and neck and frequent transactivating MYOD1 mutations. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) show heterologous (most often rhabdomyoblastic) differentiation in 10% of cases; such tumors have been referred to as malignant "Triton" tumors. MPNST frequently harbors inactivating mutations in SUZ12 or EED, resulting in PRC2 dysfunction and loss of histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3), most often seen in sporadic and radiation-associated, high-grade tumors; immunohistochemistry (IHC) for H3K27me3 is a useful diagnostic marker. We recently encountered a tumor showing H3K27me3 loss but with otherwise typical features of spindle cell RMS. The purpose of this study was to evaluate H3K27me3 in spindle cell RMS and further investigate putative spindle cell RMS with loss of H3K27me3. IHC for H3K27me3 was performed on 50 tumors diagnosed as spindle cell RMS. Targeted sequencing of all exonic and selected intronic regions of ~450 genes was performed on the tumors with H3K27me3 loss using hybrid capture with a custom probe set and massively parallel (next-generation) sequencing (NGS). Of the 50 patients, 32 were male and 18 were female with a median age of 33 years (range, 6 wk to 77 y). Tumors most often involved head and neck (N=23), extremities/limb girdles (N=11), and trunk wall (N=5). Three cases (6%) showed loss of H3K27me3; based on all available evidence, we believe at least 2 of these cases in fact represent MPNST with complete heterologous rhabdomyoblastic differentiation: a deep-seated groin mass in a 76-year-old female and a paratesticular mass in a 22-year-old male (neither of whom had a history or signs of type 1 neurofibromatosis). The tumors showed similar histologic appearances: fascicular architecture, marked nuclear atypia, eosinophilic cytoplasm, and a high mitotic rate; rhabdomyoblasts were not apparent. One tumor showed focal areas with scant myxoid stroma and alternating hypocellularity and hypercellularity. By IHC, the tumors showed diffuse staining for desmin, myogenin, and MyoD1, whereas S100 protein and SOX10 were negative. NGS on 2 tumors revealed (1) 2-copy deletion of NF1, CDKN2A, and SUZ12 and a TP53 mutation with arm-level loss of 17p; and (2) 2-copy deletion of CDKN2A and an NF1 mutation with loss of 17q11, findings characteristic of MPNST. NGS on the third tumor showed no distinctive alterations. MPNST may occasionally show complete heterologous rhabdomyoblastic differentiation without histologic evidence of residual conventional MPNST, closely mimicking spindle cell RMS. IHC for H3K27me3 reliably distinguishes MPNST from spindle cell RMS.

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