Advances in Regenerative Stem Cell Therapy in Androgenic Alopecia and Hair Loss: Wnt pathway, Growth-Factor, and Mesenchymal Stem Cell Signaling Impact Analysis on Cell Growth and Hair Follicle Development

Pietro Gentile, Simone Garcovich
Cells 2019 May 16, 8 (5)
The use of stem cells has been reported to improve hair regrowth in several therapeutic strategies, including reversing the pathological mechanisms, that contribute to hair loss, regeneration of hair follicles, or creating hair using the tissue-engineering approach. Although various promising stem cell approaches are progressing via pre-clinical models to clinical trials, intraoperative stem cell treatments with a one-step procedure offer a quicker result by incorporating an autologous cell source without manipulation, which may be injected by surgeons through a well-established clinical practice. Many authors have concentrated on adipose-derived stromal vascular cells due to their ability to separate into numerous cell genealogies, platelet-rich plasma for its ability to enhance cell multiplication and neo-angiogenesis, as well as human follicle mesenchymal stem cells. In this paper, the significant improvements in intraoperative stem cell approaches, from in vivo models to clinical investigations, are reviewed. The potential regenerative instruments and functions of various cell populaces in the hair regrowth process are discussed. The addition of Wnt signaling in dermal papilla cells is considered a key factor in stimulating hair growth. Mesenchymal stem cell-derived signaling and growth factors obtained by platelets influence hair growth through cellular proliferation to prolong the anagen phase (FGF-7), induce cell growth (ERK activation), stimulate hair follicle development (β-catenin), and suppress apoptotic cues (Bcl-2 release and Akt activation).

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