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Cytogenetic and molecular genotyping in the allotetraploid Festuca pratensis × Lolium perenne hybrids

Joanna Majka, Katarzyna Bzdęga, Agnieszka Janiak, Hanna Ćwiek-Kupczyńska, Paweł Krajewski, Tomasz Książczyk, Zbigniew Zwierzykowski
BMC Genomics 2019 May 14, 20 (1): 367

BACKGROUND: Species of the Festuca and Lolium genera, as well as intergeneric Festuca × Lolium (Festulolium) hybrids, are valuable fodder and turf grasses for agricultural and amenity purposes worldwide. Festulolium hybrids can merge in their genomes agronomically important characteristics. However, in polyploid plants, especially in allopolyploids, the hybridization of divergent genomes could contribute to various abnormalities, such as variability in chromosome number, structural rearrangements, and/or disorders in inheritance patterns. Here we studied these issues in allotetraploid Festuca pratensis × Lolium perenne hybrids.

RESULTS: Cytogenetic procedures, including fluorescent in situ hybridization, genomic in situ hybridization, and molecular markers - inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) were exploited. This cytogenetic approach indicated the dynamics in the number and distribution of ribosomal RNA genes and structural rearrangements for both parental genomes (Festuca and Lolium) in hybrid karyotypes. The separate analysis of F. pratensis and L. perenne chromosomes in hybrid plants (F2 -F3 generations of F. pratensis × L. perenne) revealed the asymmetrical level of rearrangements. Recognized structural changes were mainly located in the distal part of chromosome arms, and in chromosomes bearing ribosomal DNA, they were more frequently mapped in arms without this sequence. Based on the ISSR markers distribution, we found that the tetrasomic type of inheritance was characteristic for the majority of ISSR loci, but the disomic type was also observed. Nonetheless, no preference in the transmission of either Festuca or Lolium alleles to the following generations of allotetraploid F. pratensis × L. perenne hybrid was observed.

CONCLUSION: Our study reports cytogenetic and molecular genotyping of the F. pratensis × L. perenne hybrid and its following F2 -F3 progenies. The analysis of 137 allotetraploid F. pratensis × L. perenne hybrids revealed the higher level of recombination in chromosomes derived from F. pratensis genome. The results of ISSR markers indicated a mixed model of inheritance, which may be characteristic for these hybrids.


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