An update on therapies for the treatment of diabetes-induced osteoporosis

Sahar Mohsin, May Myh Baniyas, Reem Smh AlDarmaki, Kornélia Tekes, Huba Kalász, Ernest A Adeghate
Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy 2019 May 11
Currently, 424 million people aged between 20-79 years worldwide are diabetic. More than 25% of adults aged over 65 years in North America have Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Diabetes-induced osteoporosis (DM-OS) is caused by chronic hyperglycemia, advanced glycated end products and oxidative stress. The increase in the prevalence of DM-OS has prompted researchers to develop new biological therapies for the management of DM-OS. Areas covered: This review covered the current and novel biological agents used in the management of DM-OS. Data were retrieved from PubMed, Scopus, American Diabetes Association and International Osteoporosis Foundation websites, and The keywords for the search included: DM, osteoporosis, and management. Expert opinion: Several biological molecules have been examined in order to find efficient drugs for the treatment of DM-OS. These biological agents include anti-osteoporosis drugs: net anabolics (parathyroid hormone/analogues, androgens, calcilytics, anti-sclerostin antibody), net anti-resorptive osteoporosis drugs (calcitonin, estrogen, selective estrogen receptor modulators, bisphosphonates, RANKL antibody) and anti-diabetic drugs (alpha glucosidase inhibitors, sulfonylureas, biguanides, meglitinides, thiazolidinediones, GLP-1 receptor agonists, dipeptidylpeptidase-4 inhibitors, sodium glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors, insulin). Biological medications that effectively decrease hyperglycemia and, at the same time, maintain bone health would be an ideal drug/drug combination for the treatment of DM-OS.

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