Cardiogenic Shock in Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy Versus Acute Myocardial Infarction: An 8-Year National Perspective on Clinical Characteristics, Management, and Outcomes

Saraschandra Vallabhajosyula, Shannon M Dunlay, Dennis H Murphree, Gregory W Barsness, Gurpreet S Sandhu, Amir Lerman, Abhiram Prasad
JACC. Heart Failure 2019, 7 (6): 469-476

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to evaluate the clinical characteristics and outcomes of Takotusbo cardiomyopathy cardiogenic shock (TC-CS) in comparison to those of acute myocardial infarction cardiogenic shock (AMI-CS) among patients hospitalized in the United States. We additionally sought to compare the incidence of multiorgan failure and use of supportive therapies as well as the trends over time, given the increasing awareness and diagnosis of TC.

BACKGROUND: CS is a major complication of TC; however, there are limited data, especially as to how TC-CS compares to AMI-CS.

METHODS: The National Inpatient Sample Database was used to identify adults hospitalized with CS in the setting of TC and AMI from 2007 to 2014. We required patients admitted with TC to have undergone coronary angiography without intervention. Clinical characteristics and in-hospital outcomes in TC-CS patients were compared with those in AMI-CS patients. Multivariate regression and propensity matching were used to adjust for potential confounding factors.

RESULTS: Between 2007 and 2014, there were 374,152 admissions for CS due to either TC or AMI, of which 4,614 patients (1.2%) had TC-CS. TC-CS admission patients were more likely to be younger, white females with fewer comorbidities. Rates of respiratory failure and mechanical ventilation were higher in TC-CS, but cardiac arrest and acute kidney injury were lower. There were no differences between cohorts in use of intra-aortic balloon pumps. TC-CS admissions had lower in-hospital mortality (15% vs. 37%, respectively) and hospital costs (U.S. dollars: $135,397 ± $127,617 vs. $154,827 ± $186,035, respectively) and were discharged home more often (45% vs. 36%, respectively) compared to AMI-CS admissions (all: p < 0.001). After adjustments for potential confounders, TC-CS was associated with lower in-hospital mortality (odds ratio [OR]: 0.35; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.32 to 0.38; p < 0.001). Similar findings were observed in the propensity-matched cohort (OR: 0.32; 95% CI: 0.25 to 0.39; p < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS: There are key differences between the clinical characteristics and multiorgan failure patterns in TC-CS compared to those in AMI-CS. In-hospital mortality (15%) is lower in TC-CS.

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