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New approach to investigate Common Variable Immunodeficiency patients using spectrochemical analysis of blood

Emma L Callery, Camilo L M Morais, Maria Paraskevaidi, Vladimir Brusic, Pavaladurai Vijayadurai, Ariharan Anantharachagan, Francis L Martin, Anthony W Rowbottom
Scientific Reports 2019 May 10, 9 (1): 7239
Common variable immune deficiency (CVID) is a primary immunodeficiency disease, characterized by hypogammaglobulinemia, recurrent infections and various complications. The clinical heterogeneity of CVID has hindered identification of an underlying immune defect; diagnosis relies on clinical judgement, alongside evidence-based criteria. The lack of pathognomonic clinical or laboratory features leads to average diagnostic delays of 5 years or more from the onset. Vibrational spectroscopic techniques such as Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy have recently gained increasing clinical importance, being rapid-, non-invasive and inexpensive methods to obtain information on the content of biological samples. This has led us to apply FTIR spectroscopy to the investigation of blood samples from a cohort of CVID patients; revealing spectral features capable of stratifying CVID patients from healthy controls with sensitivities and specificities of 97% and 93%, respectively for serum, and 94% and 95%, respectively for plasma. Furthermore we identified several discriminating spectral biomarkers; wavenumbers in regions indicative of nucleic acids (984 cm-1 , 1053 cm-1 , 1084 cm-1 , 1115 cm-1 , 1528 cm-1 , 1639 cm-1 ), and a collagen-associated biomarker (1528 cm-1 ), which may represent future candidate biomarkers and provide new knowledge on the aetiology of CVID. This proof-of-concept study provides a basis for developing a novel diagnostic tool for CVID.


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