JOURNAL ARTICLE
REVIEW

[Improving Effects of Peptides on Brain Malfunction and Intranasal Delivery of Those Derivatives to the Brain]

Jun-Ichiro Oka
Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan 2019, 139 (5): 783-791
31061348
This review focuses on the anti-dementia and antidepressant-like effects of peptides including glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1, GLP-2, neuromedin U (NmU), and oxytocin, and the intranasal delivery of these peptides to the brain. Intracerebroventricularly administered GLP-1, NmU, and oxytocin improved impairment of learning and memory in mice treated with lipopolysaccharide or β-amyloid protein. GLP-1 also improved impairment of learning and memory in juvenile diabetes model rats. On the other hand, GLP-2 exhibited antidepressant-like effects in mice during the forced-swim test, which were associated with 5-HT1A , α2 , β1 , and D2 receptors. GLP-2 also exerted antidepressant-like effects in adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-treated mice through restoration of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis and neurogenesis in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus. Because intracerebroventricular administration is invasive and the peptides are unable to penetrate the blood-brain barrier, we introduced our new method of intranasal administration to deliver the peptides to the brain. We prepared a GLP-2 derivative containing cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) and a penetration accelerating sequence (PAS). Intranasally administered PAS-CPPs-GLP-2 was distributed throughout the brain, and exhibited antidepressant-like effects in both naive and ACTH-treated mice. The derivatives of GLP-1, NmU, and oxytocin with the PAS and CPPs were also distributed throughout the brain after intranasal administration, and improved impairment of learning and memory. We confirmed that our peptide derivatives were effectively delivered into the brain by intranasal administration. As such, these derivatives may be useful for the clinical treatment of psychiatric and neurological diseases.

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