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Thoracic Outlet Syndrome: A Comprehensive Review of Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Treatment.

Thoracic outlet syndrome, a group of diverse disorders, is a collection of symptoms in the shoulder and upper extremity area that results in pain, numbness, and tingling. Identification of thoracic outlet syndrome is complex and a thorough clinical examination in addition to appropriate clinical testing can aide in diagnosis. Practitioners must consider the pathology of thoracic outlet syndrome in their differential diagnosis for shoulder and upper extremity pain symptoms so that patients are directed appropriately to timely therapeutic interventions. Patients with a definitive etiology who have failed conservative management are ideal candidates for surgical correction. This manuscript will discuss thoracic outlet syndrome, occurrence, physical presentation, clinical implications, diagnosis, and management.

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