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The long noncoding RNA Lnczc3h7a promotes a TRIM25-mediated RIG-I antiviral innate immune response

Hongyu Lin, Minghong Jiang, Lun Liu, Zongheng Yang, Zhongfei Ma, Shuo Liu, Yuanwu Ma, Lianfeng Zhang, Xuetao Cao
Nature Immunology 2019 April 29
The helicase RIG-I initiates an antiviral immune response after recognition of pathogenic RNA. TRIM25, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, mediates K63-linked ubiquitination of RIG-I, which is crucial for RIG-I downstream signaling and the antiviral innate immune response. The components and mode of the RIG-I-initiated innate signaling remain to be fully understood. Here we identify a novel long noncoding RNA (Lnczc3h7a) that binds to TRIM25 and promotes RIG-I-mediated antiviral innate immune responses. Depletion of Lnczc3h7a impairs RIG-I signaling and the antiviral innate response to RNA viruses in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, Lnczc3h7a binds to both TRIM25 and activated RIG-I, serving as a molecular scaffold for stabilization of the RIG-I-TRIM25 complex at the early stage of viral infection. Lnczc3h7a facilitates TRIM25-mediated K63-linked ubiquitination of RIG-I and thus promotes downstream signaling transduction. Our findings reveal that host RNAs can enhance the response of innate immune sensors to foreign RNAs, ensuring effective antiviral defense.


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