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Metabolic Acidosis in CKD: Core Curriculum 2019

Kalani L Raphael
American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation 2019 April 26
31036389
Maintenance of normal acid-base homeostasis is one of the most important kidney functions. In chronic kidney disease, the capacity of the kidneys to excrete the daily acid load as ammonium and titratable acid is impaired, resulting in acid retention and metabolic acidosis. The prevalence of metabolic acidosis increases with declining glomerular filtration rate. Metabolic acidosis is associated with several clinically important complications, including chronic kidney disease progression, bone demineralization, skeletal muscle catabolism, and mortality. To mitigate these adverse consequences, clinical practice guidelines suggest treating metabolic acidosis with oral alkali in patients with chronic kidney disease. However, large clinical trials to determine the efficacy and safety of correcting metabolic acidosis with oral alkali in patients with chronic kidney disease have yet to be conducted. In this Core Curriculum article, established and emerging concepts regarding kidney acid-base regulation and the pathogenesis, risk factors, diagnosis, and management of metabolic acidosis in chronic kidney disease are discussed.

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