JOURNAL ARTICLE

Changes in Microbial Profiles and Antibiotic Resistance Patterns in Patients with Biliary Tract Infection Over a Six-Year Period

Jijun Zhao, Qin Wang, Jianhua Zhang
Surgical Infections 2019 April 24
31017560
Background: Biliary tract infection (BTI) is a common complication in patients with biliary obstruction caused by various biliary tract disorders. To improve the management of patients with BTI, microbial profiles from bile cultures and antibiotic resistance patterns were evaluated in this six-year retrospective study. Methods: A total of 709 patients with various biliary tract disorders from January 2012 to December 2017 were enrolled in this study. Bile specimens were taken from intra-operative puncture or post-operative drainage for microbial culture under sterile conditions. Microbial culture, identification, and antibiotic resistance test were performed according to a standard routine. Results: Cultures were positive in 574 of 789 bile specimens (73%). Of all isolates, 386 were gram-negative bacilli (67%), 170 were gram-positive cocci (30%), and 18 were fungi (3%). The two most common micro-organisms were Escherichia coli (29%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (16%), the extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) positivity rates of which were 52% and 21%, respectively. Both bacteria were highly resistant to commonly used antibiotic agents (penicillins, cephalosporins, and quinolones), and highly susceptible to carbapenems, amikacin, and piperacillin-tazobactam. Enterococcus (19%) was the next most common bacteria isolated from bile samples, mainly including Enterococcus faecium (8%) and Enterococcus faecalis (6%). These two bacteria were resistant to cefazolin and clindamycin but sensitive to teicoplanin, tigecycline, and vancomycin. Enterococcus faecium was more resistant than Enterococcus faecalis to most of the tested antibiotic agents. Annual statistical analysis showed that the frequency of gram-negative enteric bacteria was decreasing slowly, but that of gram-positive enterococci was increasing slowly. Moreover, the overall antibiotic resistance rates of the most common strains have been decreasing slowly over the past six years. Conclusions: Enterobacteriaceae ( Enterococcus coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae ) and Enterococcus ( Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis ) were the common pathogenic bacteria causing BTI, which exhibited high resistance to routinely used antibiotic agents and were highly sensitive to piperacillin-tazobactam, carbapenem, amikacin, and vancomycin. The microbial profiles from bile and its antibiotic resistance patterns have changed, which will help in the empirical treatment of BTI.

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