Community pharmacists' educational needs for implementing clinical pharmacogenomic services

Lucas A Berenbrok, Kristin M Hart, Stephanie Harriman McGrath, Kim C Coley, Melissa A Somma McGivney, Philip E Empey
Journal of the American Pharmacists Association: JAPhA 2019 April 19

OBJECTIVES: Pharmacist leadership and knowledge of pharmacogenomics is critical to the acceleration and enhancement of clinical pharmacogenomic services. This study aims for a qualitative description of community pharmacists' pharmacogenomic educational needs when implementing clinical pharmacogenomic services at community pharmacies.

METHODS: Pharmacists practicing at Rite Aid Pharmacy locations in the Greater Pittsburgh Area were recruited to participate in this qualitative analysis. Pharmacists from pharmacy locations offering pharmacogenomic testing and robust patient care services were eligible to participate in a semistructured, audio-recorded interview. The semistructured interview covered 4 domains crafted by the investigative team: (1) previous knowledge of pharmacogenomics; (2) implementation resources; (3) workflow adaptation; and (4) learning preferences. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and independently coded by 2 researchers. A thematic analysis by the investigative team followed. Supporting quotes were selected to illustrate each theme.

RESULTS: Eleven pharmacists from 9 unique pharmacy locations participated in this study. The average length of practice as a community pharmacist was 12 years (range, 1.5-31 years). Pharmacist's pharmacogenomic educational needs were categorized into 5 key themes: (1) enriched pharmacogenomic education and training; (2) active learning to build confidence in using pharmacogenomic data in practice; (3) robust and reputable clinical resources to effectively implement pharmacogenomic services; (4) team-based approach throughout implementation; (5) readily accessible network of pharmacogenomic experts.

CONCLUSION: This study describes the educational needs and preferences of community pharmacists for the successful provision of clinical pharmacogenomic services in community pharmacies. Pharmacists recognized their needs for enriched knowledge and instruction, practice applying pharmacogenomic principles with team-based approaches, robust clinical resources, and access to pharmacogenomic experts. This deeper understanding of pharmacist needs for pharmacogenomic education could help to accelerate and enhance the clinical implementation of pharmacogenomic services led by community pharmacists.


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