JOURNAL ARTICLE

The spatial differences in bone mineral density and hip structure between low-energy femoral neck and trochanteric fractures in elderly Chinese using quantitative computed tomography

Su Yong-Bin, Wang Ling, Wu Xin-Bao, Yi Chen, Yang Ming-Hui, Yan Dong, Cheng Ke-Bin, Cheng Xiao-Guang
Bone 2019 April 17
31004806
The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences in bone mineral density (BMD) and hip structure between femoral neck and trochanteric fractures in elderly Chinese individuals using quantitative computed tomography (QCT). A total of 625 Chinese patients (mean age 75.8 years) who sustained low-energy hip fractures (female: 293 femoral neck, 175 trochanteric; male: 82 femoral neck, 75 trochanteric) were recruited. Each patient underwent a hip QCT scan. The areal BMD (aBMD) of the contralateral normal hip was obtained using a computed tomography X-ray absorptiometry module. Using the bone investigation toolkit (BIT) module, the femoral neck was divided into four quadrants: supero-anterior (SA), infero-anterior (IA), infero-posterior (IP), and supero-posterior (SP). Estimated cortical thickness, cortical BMD, and trabecular BMD were measured in each quadrant. Using the hip structure analysis (HSA) function, several parameters were calculated. Stratified by sex, covariance analyses were applied to compare the femoral neck fractures group with trochanteric fractures group after adjustments for age, height, and weight. In women, trochanteric fractures exhibited lower trabecular BMD and estimated cortical thickness at three quadrants of the femoral neck (IA: P = 0.02, P < 0.01; IP: P < 0.01, P = 0.01; SP: P = 0.01, P < 0.01), and lower aBMD at the trochanter area (P < 0.01); femoral neck fractures exhibited lower cortical BMD and estimated cortical thickness at the SA quadrant (P = 0.04, P = 0.01). Differences in HSA parameters were not statistically significant. Among all parameters, the most valuable ones to discrimination of hip fracture type are estimated cortical thickness of the SA quadrant of femoral neck and the aBMD of the trochanter area. In men, only lower cortical BMD at the SP quadrant and aBMD at the trochanter were found in the trochanteric fractures (P = 0.02, P < 0.01). QCT outcomes indicate that spatial differences are helpful to explore the pathogenesis of different type of hip fractures. In women, trochanteric fractures are related to severer osteoporosis, whereas cortical fragility in the SA region of the femoral neck predominates in cases of femoral neck fractures. In men, trochanteric fractures are related to more bone loss of trochanter.

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