The clinical significance of plasma CFHR 1-5 in lupus nephropathy

Xiaofang Hu, Hengdao Liu, Jie Du, Ying Chen, Ming Yang, Yuhong Xie, Juan Chen, Siyuan Yan, Shaxi Ouyang, Zhicheng Gong
Immunobiology 2019 April 3
A deficiency of complement factor H may lead to excessive consumption of C3 and an increase in C3b deposition, which are important pathological characteristics of lupus nephritis. Complement factor H-related proteins (CFHRs), comprising CFHR1 to CFHR5 (CFHR1-5), are members of the wider factor H/CFHR family. Their role in lupus nephritis remains unclear. In this study, we compared circulating levels of CFHR1-5 in 152 patients diagnosed with lupus nephritis and 20 unrelated healthy individuals to explore the relationship between the expression of CFHR1-5 and development of the disease. We found that plasma levels of CFHR3 and CFHR5 were higher in patients with lupus nephritis than in healthy individuals; also, CFHR3 and CFHR5 concentrations increased with increasing systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity index (SLEDAI) values (P < 0.05). Pearson's and Spearman's correlation test results confirmed that plasma CFHR3 and CFHR5 levels in lupus nephritis patients were positively correlated with proteinuria and levels of creatinine (Cr) and anti-dsDNA (correlation coefficients = 0.491-0.717, P < 0.05), while they were negatively correlated with plasma C3 levels and eGFR [correlation coefficients = -(0.706-0.788), P < 0.05]. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis results confirmed that plasma CFHR3 and CFHR5 levels were predictive of SLEDAI values and disease end points (area under the curve = 0.664-0.884, P < 0.05), with patients with both high CFHR3 and high CFHR5 exhibiting the shortest progression-free survival. Thus, both CFHR3 and CFHR5 are of prognostic value in lupus nephritis status.

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