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JOURNAL ARTICLE

Neuromuscular dentistry and the role of the autonomic nervous system: Sphenopalatine ganglion blocks and neuromodulation. An International College of Cranio Mandibular Orthopedics (ICCMO) position paper

Ira L Shapira
Cranio: the Journal of Craniomandibular Practice 2019, 37 (3): 201-206
30973097
The Sphenopalatine Ganglion (SPG) is known to play an integral role in the pathophysiology of a wide variety of orofacial pains involving the jaws, sinuses, eyes and the trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias. It supplies direct parasympathetic innervation to the trigeminal and facial nerves. Sympathetic innervation from the superior sympathetic chain passes thru the SPG to the trigeminal and facial nerves.This paper reviews relevant and significant literature on SPG Blocks and Neuromodulation published in peer reviewed medical and dental journals. Neuromuscular Dentistry employs ULF-TENS to relax musculature and simultaneously provide neuromodulation to the ganglion.Conclusion: The effects of ULF-TENS on the autonomic nervous system acts on the Limbic System and Hypothalamus (H-P-A) to address Axis II issues during neuromuscular dental procedures. It also directly affects the autonomic component of the trigeminal nerve involved in almost all headaches and migraines as well as the Myofascial and Joint disorders of TMD.

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