Glycemic response to low sugar apple juice treated with invertase, glucose oxidase and catalase

C Laue, S Ballance, S H Knutsen, E Papazova, E Soeth, A Pannenbeckers, J Schrezenmeir
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2019 April 10

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Investigating the effect on post-prandial glycemic and venous serum insulin response of an apple drink following the conversion of its glucose to gluconate.

SUBJECTS/METHODS: In a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial with cross-over design, 30 male adults with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) received a drink of 500 ml: 1. Verum: Apple juice treated with invertase, glucose oxidase/catalase (glucose 0.05 g; gluconate 18.2 g); 2.

CONTROL: Untreated apple juice (free glucose 8.5 g; bound glucose 6.7 g; gluconate below detection limit). Postprandial fingerprick capillary blood glucose and venous serum insulin were measured twice at baseline and at times 0 (start of drink), 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min. Gastrointestinal symptoms, stool consistency and satiety were also assessed.

RESULTS: The incremental area under the curve (iAUC120 ) of glucose levels (primary parameter) was significantly lower after verum (mean ± SD: 63.6 ± 46.7 min × mmol/l) compared to control (mean ± SD: 198 ± 80.9 min × mmol/l) (ANOVA F = 137.4, p < 0.001; α = 0.05). Also, iAUC120 of venous serum insulin levels (secondary parameter) was significantly lower after verum (mean ± SD: 2045 ± 991 min × mmol/l) compared to control (3864.3 ± 1941 min × mmol/l), (ANOVA F = 52.94, p < 0.001; α = 0.025). Further parameters of glucose metabolism and ISI = 2/[AUC venous serum insulin × AUC glucose +1] were also improved after verum compared to control. Verum increased stool frequency and decreased stool consistency, as assessed by Bristol stool form scale.

CONCLUSIONS: By enzymatic treatment of apple juice its sugar content could be reduced by 21% and postprandial glycemic and venous serum insulin response by 68 and 47%, respectively resulting in a reduction of glycemic load by 74.6% without any adverse gastrointestinal side-effects.

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