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Immune response markers in sera of children infected with Giardia duodenalis AI and AII subassemblages

Flávia T F Pacheco, Silvia S Carvalho, Luciana S Cardoso, Lorena S Andrade, Gisele M T das Chagas, Daisy C Gomes, Cristiane F Mercês, Felipe C Rocha, Luciano K Silva, Neci M Soares, Márcia C A Teixeira
Immunobiology 2019 April 3
In this study, we evaluated serum markers of immune responses in children infected with G. duodenalis and compared them with the characterized parasite isolates. The reactivity indexes (RI) of IgG (1.503 ± 0.819) and IgA (2.308 ± 1.935) antibodies were significantly higher (P < 0.001) in infected children than in non-infected children. There were also statistically significantly higher serum levels (P < 0.05) of IFN-γ (393.10 ± 983.90 pg/mL) as well as serum (30.03 ± 10.92 μmol/L) and saliva nitric oxid derivatives (NOx ) (192.4 ± 151.2 μmol/L) in children infected with G. duodenalis compared to the group of non-parasitized children (127.4 ± 274.30 pg/mL; 25.82 ± 7.74 μmol/L and 122.5 ± 105.90 μmol/L, respectively). Regarding the characterized genetic variants of G. duodenalis and the immune response profiles, no differences were observed in terms of antibody reactivity or levels of serum cytokine and NOx among children infected with AI or AII subassemblages. The elevated levels of IFN-γ and NOx indicate that G. duodenalis intestinal infection in humans induces a cellular immune response detectable at the systemic level. Moreover, no significant differences in the antibody reactivity profile or the cytokine and NOx production in the sera of children infected with AI or AII G. duodenalis variants were observed, suggesting that subtypes of the parasite do not influence the immune response profile.


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