Predictive factors of prostate cancer diagnosis with PSA 4.0-10.0 ng/ml in a multi-ethnic Asian population, Malaysia

Raymond Shi Liang Yii, Jasmine Lim, Selvalingam Sothilingam, Wei Sien Yeoh, Ahmad Nazran Fadzli, Teng Aik Ong, Shanggar Kuppusamy, Azad Hassan Abdul Razack
Asian Journal of Surgery 2019 April 5

OBJECTIVES: To identify the associated factors determining prostate cancer detection using transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided prostate biopsy, within a multi-ethnic Malaysian population with prostate specific antigen (PSA) between 4.0 and 10.0 ng/ml.

METHODS: Study subjects included men with initial PSA between 4.0 and 10.0 ng/ml that have undergone 12-core TRUS-guided prostate biopsy between 2009 and 2016. The prostate cancer detection rate was calculated, while potential factors associated with detection were investigated via univariable and multivariable analysis.

RESULTS: A total of 617 men from a multi-ethnic background encompassing Chinese (63.5%), Malay (23.1%) and Indian (13.3%) were studied. The overall cancer detection rate was 14.3% (88/617), which included cancers detected at biopsy 1 (first biopsy), biopsy 2 (second biopsy with previous negative biopsy) and biopsy ≥ 3 (third or more biopsies with prior negative biopsies). Indian men displayed higher detection rate (23.2%) and increased risk of prostate cancer development (OR 1.85, 95% CI 1.03-3.32, p < 0.05), compared to their Malay (9.8%) and Chinese (14.0%) counterparts. Multivariable analysis revealed that ethnicity and PSA density (PSAD) are independent factors associated with overall prostate cancer detection rate. A unit increase of PSAD reflected an increase in PSA after controlling for prostate volume.

CONCLUSION: Prostate cancer detection in Malaysia is comparatively lower. Our study suggests that ethnicity and PSA density should be considered when recommending first or repeat TRUS-guided prostate biopsy for prostate cancer detection in a multi-ethnic Malaysian population.

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