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Fat Embolism and Fat Embolism Syndrome.

Fat embolism (FE) occurs frequently after trauma and during orthopaedic procedures involving manipulation of intramedullary contents. Classically characterized as a triad of pulmonary distress, neurologic symptoms, and petechial rash, the clinical entity of FE syndrome is much less common. Both mechanical and biochemical pathophysiologic theories have been proposed with contributions of vascular obstruction and the inflammatory response to embolized fat and trauma. Recent studies have described the relationship of embolized marrow fat with deep venous thrombosis and postsurgical cognitive decline, but without clear treatment strategies. Because treatment is primarily supportive, our focus must be on prevention. In trauma, early fracture stabilization decreases the rate of FE syndrome; however, questions remain regarding the effect of reaming and management of bilateral femur fractures. In arthroplasty, computer navigation and alternative cementation techniques decrease fat embolization, although the clinical implications of these techniques are currently unclear, illustrating the need for ongoing education and research with an aim toward prevention.

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