Non-squamous cell carcinoma diseases of the larynx: clinical and imaging findings

Serap Doğan, Alperen Vural, Güven Kahriman, Hakan İmamoğlu, Ümmühan Abdülrezzak, Mustafa Öztürk
Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology 2020, 86 (4): 468-482

INTRODUCTION: Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common laryngeal neoplasm and accounts for approximately 95% of all malignant neoplams of the larynx. However, various benign and malignant tumors and inflammatory diseases may affect the larynx.

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to analyze the clinical and imaging findings of non-squamous cell neoplasms and inflammatory diseases of the larynx.

METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted in 18 patients who were diagnosed with non-squamous cell carcinoma lesions of larynx at our institution between 2007-2017. Clinical symptoms, examination findings, imaging characteristics, histopathologic diagnosis and treatment modalities were analyzed.

RESULTS: There were 9 malignant lesions (2 chondrosarcoma, 1 neuroendocrine tumor-atipical carcinoid, 1 Natural Killer/T-cell lymphoma, 1 diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, 3 plasmocytoma-multiple myeloma involvement, 1 adenocarcinoma metastasis), 3 benign neoplasms (chondroma, paraganglioma, lipoma), 2 tumor-like lesions (Brown tumor and inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor), 3 inflammatory lesions (Wegener granulomatosis, Behçet's disease and tuberculosis involvements), and 1 vascular malformation. The most common presenting symptom was hoarseness (66.6%). Paraganglioma was seen as hypervascular lesion on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging and showed intense tracer uptake on 68Gallium-DOTA-peptide PET/CT. Chondroid matrix calcifications were detected in chondroma and chondrosarcoma-grade 1. In patients with vascular malformation and lipoma, the typical imaging findings made it possible to diagnose.

CONCLUSION: Imaging studies may provide clues for diagnosis of non-squamous cell laryngeal lesions. Clinical and imaging findings and previous clinical history should be evaluated together in clinical management of laryngeal lesions.

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