Impact of early detection of acute invasive fungal rhinosinusitis in immunocompromised patients

Mariana L C Silveira, Wilma T Anselmo-Lima, Francesca M Faria, Danielle L C Queiroz, Rodrigo L Nogueira, Marcelo G J Leite, Ricardo M Lessa, Belinda P Simões, Edwin Tamashiro, Fabiana C P Valera
BMC Infectious Diseases 2019 April 5, 19 (1): 310

BACKGROUND: Early diagnosis of acute invasive fungal rhinosinusitis (AIFRS) is vital to improving outcomes in immunocompromised patients. This study evaluated the impact of a systematic protocol with nasal endoscopy and biopsies to early detect AIFRS in immunocompromised patients. Additionally, we compared the accuracy of frozen-section biopsy and culture with formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) biopsy.

METHODS: Retrospective cohort in a Tertiary Referral Hospital. Patients with the suspected diagnosis of AIFRS were evaluated following a standardized protocol, including serial nasal endoscopies and biopsies when necessary. The sensitivity and specificity of frozen-section biopsy and culture were also compared with FFPE.

RESULTS: The mortality rate related to AIFRS of this standardized cohort (13/43) was 30.2%. Better outcomes were observed in patients with disease limited to the turbinates and in those with higher peripheral neutrophils count. Frozen-section biopsy positivity correlated with FFPE findings for fungi detection (p-value < 0.0001), with a sensitivity of 90.6%, specificity of 72.7%, and accuracy of 86.0%.

CONCLUSION: Implementation of this standardized protocol was related to a considerably low mortality rate among patients with suspected AIFRS at our Institution. Frozen-section biopsy revealed high accuracy to diagnose AIFRS. The current protocol including frozen-tissue biopsy improved the evaluation and survival rates of immunocompromised patients with presumed AIFRS.

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