Eliminating the contribution of lipopolysaccharide to protein allergenicity in the human cell-line activation test (h-CLAT)

Hanae Kobayashi-Tsukumo, Kanami Oiji, Dan Xie, Yuka Sawada, Kunihiko Yamashita, Shinichi Ogata, Hajime Kojima, Hiroshi Itagaki
Journal of Toxicological Sciences 2019, 44 (4): 283-297
We previously developed a test for detecting naturally occurring protein-induced skin sensitization based on the markers and criteria of the human cell-line activation test (h-CLAT) and showed that the h-CLAT was useful for assessing the allergenic potency of proteins. However, test proteins were contaminated with varying amounts of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which might have contributed to the stimulation of CD86 and CD54 expression. In this study, we developed a method to exclude the effects of LPS in the assessment of skin sensitization by naturally occurring proteins. We tested two inhibitors [the caspase-1 inhibitor acetyl-Tyr-Val-Ala-Asp-chloromethylketone (Ac-YVAD-cmk; hereafter referred to as YVAD), which can mitigate the LPS-induced increases in CD54 expression, and polymyxin B (PMB), which suppresses the effect of LPS by binding to its lipid moiety (i.e., the toxic component of LPS)]. After a 24 hr exposure, YVAD and PMB reduced LPS-induced CD86 and CD54 expression. In particular, the effect of PMB was dependent upon pre-incubation time and temperature, with the most potent effect observed following pre-incubation at 37°C for 24 hr. Moreover, only pre-incubation with cell-culture medium (CCM) at 37°C for 24 hr showed an inhibitory effect similar to that of PMB, with this result possibly caused by components of CCM binding to LPS. Similar effects were observed in the presence of ovalbumin (with 1070 EU/mg LPS) and ovomucoid, and lysozyme (with 2.82 and 0.234 EU/mg LPS, respectively) in CCM. These results indicated that PMB and CCM effectively eliminated the effects of LPS during assessment of protein allergenicity, thereby allowing a more accurate evaluation of the potential of proteins to induce skin sensitization.

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