Dosage time affects alkylating agents induced micronuclei in mouse peripheral blood reticulocytes through the function of erythropoietin

Keiichi Itoh, Shoji Masumori, Daisuke Mukai, Hiroyuki Sakakibara, Michiko Yasuda, Kayoko Shimoi
Journal of Toxicological Sciences 2019, 44 (4): 273-282
Previously, we reported that the frequency of micronucleated reticulocytes (MNRETs) in the peripheral blood of male C3H/He mice intraperitoneally administered ethylnitrosourea (ENU) (25 mg/kg body weight) in the dark period (zeitgeber time, ZT15) was higher than in the light period (ZT3). In this study, to clarify the mechanism underlying this phenomenon, we investigated the differences in micronucleus (MN) induction observed between ZT3 and ZT15 using five chemicals, methylnitrosourea (MNU), ethylmethane sulfonate (EMS), mitomycin C, cyclophosphamide and vincristin. MNU and EMS, monofunctional alkylating agents, showed higher frequencies of MNRETs in the ZT15 than the ZT3 treatment similar to ENU. However, no differences were observed for the other chemicals. In the comet assay, more DNA damage was induced by ENU in the ZT15 than the ZT3 treatment. Furthermore, the plasma erythropoietin (EPO) level, a known effector of MN induction with anti-apoptotic activity mediated by Bcl-xL expression, was higher in the dark than in the light period. EPO did not increase the frequency of MNRETs. However, in the ENU treatment group at ZT3 following EPO injection a significant increase of MNRETs was observed similar to the ZT15 treatment. Higher expression of apoptosis-related genes such as Bcl-xL was induced in bone marrow cells from mice treated with ENU at ZT15 compared with ZT3. From these results, it was speculated that the differences in MN induction in the peripheral blood of mice exposed to monofunctional alkylating agents such as ENU depend on apoptotic or anti-apoptotic conditions related to the circadian rhythms of EPO in bone marrow.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Available on the App Store

Available on the Play Store
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"