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Restoration of wall shear stress in the cephalic vein during extreme hemodynamics

M E Boghosian, M S Hammes, K W Cassel, S M J Akherat, F Coe
Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology 2019 April 3, : 1-11
The surgical creation of an artery-vein connection via a Brachicephalic fistula (BCF) in patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) provides a unique opportunity to study blood vessel response mechanisms to extreme hemodynamic conditions in relatively short timeframes. After BCF creation, the flow rate in the vein increases by an order of magnitude leading to separated flows and corresponding abnormally low, or negative, wall shear stress (WSS) in the curved arch segment of the cephalic vein. Locations of abnormally low WSS are shown to correlate with development of neointimal hyperplasia (NH) and subsequent stenosis. It is found that the stenosis, prior to a surgical intervention, restores the normal physiological WSS in the vein. As a result, this investigation provides evidence that the adaptation principle, known to apply in the arterial system, is also valid in the venous system. A novel graphical method is developed that combines clinical and computational data to assist in interpreting these physiological mechanisms including adaptation that lead to changes in vein geometry over time.


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