Duodenal mucosal resurfacing: proof-of-concept, procedural development, and initial implementation in the clinical setting

Rehan J Haidry, Annieke C van Baar, Manoel P Galvao Neto, Harith Rajagopalan, Jay Caplan, Philip S Levin, Jacques J Bergman, Leonardo Rodriguez, Jacques Deviere, Christopher C Thompson
Gastrointestinal Endoscopy 2019, 90 (4): 673-681.e2

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: We aimed to develop duodenal mucosal resurfacing (DMR), a minimally invasive upper endoscopic hydrothermal ablation procedure, to treat insulin-resistant metabolic diseases.

METHODS: We completed a sham-controlled, rodent proof-of-concept study and longitudinal safety study in pigs to demonstrate feasibility to test DMR in humans. Subsequently, the DMR procedure was implemented in an open-label first-in-human (FIH) study of safety and efficacy in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D).

RESULTS: In rats, duodenal abrasion reduced hyperglycemia by 59 mg/dL on average, compared with no change from baseline in the sham treatment arm (P < .05). In pigs, the balloon catheter successfully and safely delivered hydrothermal ablation to the duodenal mucosa and superficial submucosa. Complete mucosal healing was demonstrated by week 6. In the FIH study, hydrothermal ablation was successfully administered with no evidence of perforation, pancreatitis, or hemorrhage. Duodenal biopsy specimens obtained 3 months postprocedure demonstrated full mucosal regrowth. No inflammation was observed, and there was minimal-to-mild collagen banding deposition observed in a proportion of ablation site biopsy specimens with no evidence of fibrotic scarring. Glycemic and hepatic measures improved through 6 months of follow-up.

CONCLUSIONS: DMR shows potential as an endoscopic intervention that improves glycemic and hepatic parameters in patients with T2D. Further mechanistic and clinical studies are underway to further explore DMR as a treatment for metabolic disease.

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