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Nutritive and non-nutritive sucking patterns associated with pacifier use and bottle-feeding in full-term infants

Christyann L C Batista, Vandilson P Rodrigues, Valdinar S Ribeiro, Maria D S B Nascimento
Early Human Development 2019 March 28, 132: 18-23

BACKGROUND: The current literature does not provide accurate information about the association between use of artificial nipples and sucking patterns in infants.

AIMS: We aimed to investigate whether pacifier use and/or bottle-feeding were associated with nutritive sucking (NS) and non-nutritive sucking (NNS) patterns.

STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study.

SUBJECTS: 429 full-term infants/mothers.

OUTCOME MEASURES: Data were collected through a questionnaire and observations of NS during breastfeeding and NNS (finger sucking). Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyze the adjusted associations between artificial nipple use and between NS and NNS changes.

RESULTS: There were higher frequencies of changes in the NNS and NS patterns in the group that used artificial nipples. Regarding the type of artificial nipple, pacifier use had a greater influence on changes in the NNS pattern whereas the use of a baby bottle presented a greater number of associations with changes in the NS pattern.

CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that the use of artificial nipples may be associated with changes in the sucking patterns of infants, demonstrating the possible existence of nipple confusion and its effect on breastfeeding.


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