JOURNAL ARTICLE

Stimulant drugs are associated with violent and penetrating trauma

Patil Armenian, Zachary Effron, Neev Garbi, Rachel Dirks, Neal L Benowitz, Roy R Gerona
American Journal of Emergency Medicine 2019, 37 (4): 645-650
30914133

BACKGROUND: Substance abuse is associated with traumatic injuries. Prior studies of drug use and injury have relied on urine drug of abuse screens, which have false positives, false negatives and inability to detect novel drugs. Our study characterizes the relationship between injury mechanism and drugs of abuse detected in serum via confirmatory testing.

METHODS: This prospective observational study was conducted from Jan-Sept 2012 at a level 1 trauma center on trauma patients > 13 years who had blood drawn for routine tests. Demographic, injury and standard laboratory data were abstracted from patient charts. Comprehensive serum drug testing was done using liquid chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOF/MS, LC1200-TOF/MS 6230, Agilent, Santa Clara, CA).

RESULTS: Of 272 patients, 71.0% were male, 30.5% had violent injury type and 32.4% had a penetrating injury mechanism. Violent injury type and penetrating injury mechanisms were more frequent in patients who were male, younger age, Black, or Hispanic (p < 0.05 for all). LC-TOF/MS showed that 46.0% were positive for at least one drug. Stimulant drugs were associated with violent injury type (OR 2.9; 95% CI 1.64-5.15) and penetrating injury mechanism (OR 3.3; 95% CI 1.86-5.82). Tobacco use was associated with violent injury type (OR 3.9; 95% CI 2.25-6.77) and penetrating injury mechanism (OR 4.14; 95%CI 2.4-7.14).

CONCLUSIONS: Many drugs are present in trauma patients that are not routinely detected on urine drug of abuse tests. Both stimulant drugs and cigarette smoking are indicators of multidimensional hazardous behaviors, which were associated with more violent and penetrating trauma.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article

Discussion

You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Trending Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
30914133
×

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.

×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"