Green isolation and physical modification of pineapple stem waste starch as pharmaceutical excipient

Annisa Rahma, Melissa Adriani, Puji Rahayu, Raymond R Tjandrawinata, Heni Rachmawati
Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy 2019 March 26, : 1-9
The waste of inedible parts of pineapple, particularly in tropical countries, contributes to environmental burden. This study aimed to utilize pineapple stem waste as a source of starch-based pharmaceutical excipient. The starch was isolated from pineapple stem waste using a simple process without applying harsh chemicals. The isolated starch (PSS) was then physically modified through gelatinization and spray drying to improve its physical properties. Starch characteristics were identified by FTIR, TGA, and XRD analysis. The SEM imaging showed morphological change with reduced surface roughness due to physical modification of the starch. Decreased crystallinity of modified starch (MPS) was confirmed by our XRD results: the peaks of A-type crystalline at 2θ of 13°, 15°, 18°, and 23° were present in PSS, yet mostly absent in MPS. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that MPS behaved differently from PSS and the degradation events occurred at lower temperature. When the starch was spray-dried without prior gelatinization process, the physicochemical characteristics of spray-dried starch resembled untreated starch. Moisture content in PSS (10.66%) decreased after gelatinization to 7.3%. Potential use of MPS was demonstrated by its powder flowability (Student's t test, p < 0.05), swelling capacity (Student's t test, p < 0.05), and compaction profile. In summary, our findings demonstrated that modified pineapple starch showed better physical characteristics and quite promising as a tablet binder and disintegrant.

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