LPS enhances CTB-INSULIN induction of IDO1 and IL-10 synthesis in human dendritic cells

Nan-Sun Kim, Timothy Torrez, William Langridge
Cellular Immunology 2019, 338: 32-42
Autoantigen-specific immunotherapy promises effective treatment for devastating tissue specific autoimmune diseases like multiple sclerosis (MS) and type 1 diabetes (T1D). Because activated dendritic cells (DCs) stimulate the differentiation of autoreactive T cells involved in the initiation of autoimmunity, blocking the activation of DCs may be an effective strategy for inhibiting tissue specific autoimmunity. Following this approach, immature DCs were shown to remain inactive after treatment with chimeric fusion proteins composed of the cholera toxin B subunit adjuvant linked to autoantigens like proinsulin (CTB-INS). Mass spectrometer analysis of human DCs treated with CTB-INS suggest that upregulation of the tryptophan catabolic enzyme indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO1) is responsible for inhibiting DC activation thereby resulting in a state of immunological tolerance within the DC. Here we show that the fusion protein CTB-INS inhibits human monocyte derived DC (moDC) activation through stimulation of IDO1 biosynthesis and that the resultant state of DC tolerance can be further enhanced by the presence of residual E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) present in partially purified CTB-INS preparations. Additional experiments showed that LPS enhancement of DC tolerance was dependent upon stimulation of IDO1 biosynthesis. LPS stimulation of increased levels of IDO1 in the DC resulted in increased secretion of kynurenines, tryptophan degradation products known to suppress DC mediated pro-inflammatory T cell differentiation and to stimulate the proliferation of regulatory T cells (Tregs). Further, the presence of LPS in CTB-INS treated DCs stimulated the biosynthesis of costimulatory factors CD80 and CD86 but failed to upregulate maturation factor CD83, suggesting CTB-INS treated DCs may be maintained in a state of semi-activation. While treatment of moDCs with increasing amounts of LPS free CTB-INS was shown to increase DC secretion of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, the presence of residual LPS in partially purified CTB-INS preparations dramatically increased IL-10 secretion, suggesting that CTB-INS may enhance DC mediated immunological tolerance by stimulating the proliferation of anti-inflammatory T cells. While the extraction of LPS from bacterial generated CTB-INS may remove additional unknown factors that may contribute to the regulation of IDO1 levels, together, our experimental data suggest that LPS stimulates the ability of CTB-INS to induce IDO1 and IL-10 important factors required for establishment of a state of functional immunological tolerance in human DCs. Regulation of the ratio of LPS to CTB-INS may prove to be an effective method for optimization of readily available "off the shelf" CTB-INS mediated immune-therapy for tissue specific autoimmune diseases including type 1 diabetes.

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