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Best linear inverse probability weighted estimation for two-phase designs and missing covariate regression

Ching-Yun Wang, James Dai
Statistics in Medicine 2019 March 25
The inverse probability weighted estimator is often applied to two-phase designs and regression with missing covariates. Inverse probability weighted estimators typically are less efficient than likelihood-based estimators but, in general, are more robust against model misspecification. In this paper, we propose a best linear inverse probability weighted estimator for two-phase designs and missing covariate regression. Our proposed estimator is the projection of the SIPW onto the orthogonal complement of the score space based on a working regression model of the observed covariate data. The efficiency gain is from the use of the association between the outcome variable and the available covariates, which is the working regression model. One advantage of the proposed estimator is that there is no need to calculate the augmented term of the augmented weighted estimator. The estimator can be applied to general missing data problems or two-phase design studies in which the second phase data are obtained in a subcohort. The method can also be applied to secondary trait case-control genetic association studies. The asymptotic distribution is derived, and the finite sample performance of the proposed estimator is examined via extensive simulation studies. The methods are applied to a bladder cancer case-control study.


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