A hiatus hernia is defined as a transdiaphragmatic protrusion/migration of the intrabdominal contents through the esophageal hiatus of the diaphragm. The classification of hiatus hernias is based on anatomical morphological differentiation (types I-IV). The leading symptoms and psychological stress vary with respect to the symptoms, e. g. reflux and compression symptoms. Gastroscopy and multichannel intraluminal impedance pH measurement are obligatory preoperative functional diagnostics. A distinction is made between frequent type I hernia (antireflux surgery), symptomatic paraesophageal, thoracic and mixed hernia types (II-IV). Surgical indications exist in symptomatic type II-IV hernias. Hiatal mesh augmentation reduces recurrences. The complication potential of synthetic meshes must be taken into account. Biological implants show no advantages.
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