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Cryo-thermal therapy inducing MI macrophage polarization created CXCL10 and IL-6-rich pro-inflammatory environment for CD4 + T cell-mediated anti-tumor immunity

Ping Liu, Shengguo Jia, Yue Lou, Kun He, Lisa X Xu
International Journal of Hyperthermia 2019 March 20, : 1-13

PURPOSE: We previously developed a novel cryo-thermal therapy to treat malignant mammary carcinoma and melanoma in a mouse model; long-term survival and CD4+ T cell orchestrating anti-tumor immune memory response were achieved. Moreover, cryo-thermal-induced CD4+ T cell differentiation into Th1 and CD4+ CTL sub-lineages, in which M1 macrophage polarization played a direct, important role. In particular, cryo-thermal therapy triggered M1 macrophage polarization with up-regulated expression of C-X-C motif ligand 10 (CXCL10) and Interleukin 6 (IL-6). But whether CXCL10 and IL-6 contribute to CD4+ T cell-mediated anti-tumor immunity remains unclear. In this study, the role of cryo-thermal-induced CXCL10 and IL-6 in anti-tumor immunity was determined.

METHODS: The level of CXCL10 and IL-6 in spleen and serum was determined by RT-PCR and ELISA on day 14 after cryo-thermal therapy. Splenic dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages were isolated from cryo-thermal-treated mice on day 5 and 14, and the level of CXCL10 and IL-6 in macrophages and DCs was determined by ELISA. The transwell migration assay was performed to study immune cell migration. In vivo neutralization of CXCL10 or IL-6 was performed to investigate the phenotypic changes of immune cells.

RESULTS: Cryo-thermal therapy induced M1 macrophage polarization with up-regulation of CXCL10 and IL-6 expression in spleen. CXCL10 and IL-6 promoted DCs migration and maturation, and subsequently promoted CD4+ T cell migration and differentiation into Th1 and CD4+ CTL, moreover, reduced myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) accumulation.

CONCLUSIONS: Cryo-thermal-induced CXCL10 and IL-6 created acute inflammatory environment to initiate a systemically cascading innate and adaptive anti-tumor immunity, which was more permissive for tumor eradication.


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