[Postpartum endometritis: CNGOF and SPILF Pelvic Inflammatory Diseases Guidelines].
Postpartum endometritis accounts for 2% of postpartum infections in developed countries. In France, 2.3% of deaths are attributed to puerperal infections. The most important risk factor is cesarean delivery, especially if it is done after the start of labor. Bacteria of the vaginal microbiota are associated with postpartum endometritis. Symptoms are abdomino-pelvic pain, hyperthermia and abnormal lochia. The diagnosis is confirmed by uterine mobilization pain. The first-line antibiotic therapy is amoxicillin-clavulanic acid 3 to 6 grams per day depending on the weight, intravenously or orally. In case of impossibility to use penicillins (anaphylaxis for example), the combination of clindamycin 600mg×4/d plus gentamicin 5mg/kg×1/d may be use, it must be a specialized decision in case of maternal breastfeeding. The treatment is continued until obtaining 48hours of apyrexia and the disappearance of pelvic pain. In case of persistence of fever and/or pelvic pain after 72hours of antibiotic therapy, pelvic imaging should be performed for placental retention, septic thrombophlebitis, deep abscess or any other surgical complication and eliminate differential diagnoses. It is important to highlight the difficulties of interpreting endo-uterine images in ultrasound. Hypocoagulant heparin therapy should be started in case of septic thrombophlebitis for 6 weeks, or longer if there are complications such as embolism or thrombotic risk factors. Regarding prevention, during a caesarean section, a vaginal swab with iodinated polividone or chlorhexidine is recommended before caesarean if possible, and extraction of the placenta must be spontaneous.
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