Identification of Active Sarcoidosis Using Chitotriosidase and Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme

Mariana Carneiro Lopes, Thaís Porto Amadeu, Marcelo Ribeiro-Alves, Claudia Henrique da Costa, Luciana Silva Rodrigues, Elisabeth Jauhar Cardoso Bessa, Leonardo Palermo Bruno, Agnaldo José Lopes, Rogerio Rufino
Lung 2019, 197 (3): 295-302

PURPOSE: Activity/remission differentiation is a great challenge in the follow-up and treatment of sarcoidosis patients. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were proposed as sarcoidosis biomarkers. More recently, chitotriosidase (CHITO) has been described as a better alternative. This study has the aim to evaluate the association of CHITO activity, ACE, hs-CRP or a combination of these biomarkers and to construct a clinical algorithm to differentiate between sarcoidosis activity/remission status.

METHODS: Forty-six patients with either active sarcoidosis or sarcoidosis in remission and 21 healthy individuals were included. ACE, hs-CRP, and CHITO were evaluated in serum samples. Comparisons of the laboratory variable means among groups were performed by linear models. The cutoff points of the biomarkers for activity/remission differentiation were calculated using the Youden's index. Biomarker cutoff points and decision tree classifier (DTC) performance were estimated by their leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOCV) accuracy (Acc), sensitivity (Se), and specificity (Sp).

RESULTS: A 55% mean Se and a 100% mean Sp were found for CHITO, while an 88% Se and a 47% Sp were found for ACE, and a 66% Se and a 68% Sp for hs-CRP cutoff points for activity/remission differentiation. The DTC algorithm with CHITO, hs-CRP, and ACE information had an LOOCV mean Acc of 82%, Se of 78%, and Sp of 89% for sarcoidosis activity/remission differentiation.

CONCLUSIONS: The algorithm involving CHITO, hs-CRP, and ACE could be a suitable strategy for differentiation between sarcoidosis activity/remission status.

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