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Cardiovascular clusters in septic shock combining clinical and echocardiographic parameters: a post hoc analysis

Guillaume Geri, Philippe Vignon, Alix Aubry, Anne-Laure Fedou, Cyril Charron, Stein Silva, Xavier Repessé, Antoine Vieillard-Baron
Intensive Care Medicine 2019, 45 (5): 657-667

PURPOSE: Mechanisms of circulatory failure are complex and frequently intricate in septic shock. Better characterization could help to optimize hemodynamic support.

METHODS: Two published prospective databases from 12 different ICUs including echocardiographic monitoring performed by a transesophageal route at the initial phase of septic shock were merged for post hoc analysis. Hierarchical clustering in a principal components approach was used to define cardiovascular phenotypes using clinical and echocardiographic parameters. Missing data were imputed.

FINDINGS: A total of 360 patients (median age 64 [55; 74]) were included in the analysis. Five different clusters were defined: patients well resuscitated (cluster 1, n = 61, 16.9%) without left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction, right ventricular (RV) failure or fluid responsiveness, patients with LV systolic dysfunction (cluster 2, n = 64, 17.7%), patients with hyperkinetic profile (cluster 3, n = 84, 23.3%), patients with RV failure (cluster 4, n = 81, 22.5%) and patients with persistent hypovolemia (cluster 5, n = 70, 19.4%). Day 7 mortality was 9.8%, 32.8%, 8.3%, 27.2%, and 23.2%, while ICU mortality was 21.3%, 50.0%, 23.8%, 42.0%, and 38.6% in clusters 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively (p < 0.001 for both).

CONCLUSION: Our clustering approach on a large population of septic shock patients, based on clinical and echocardiographic parameters, was able to characterize five different cardiovascular phenotypes. How this could help physicians to optimize hemodynamic support should be evaluated in the future.


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