RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
Cyclospora species are socioeconomically important protistan pathogens. Cyclospora cayetanensis is usually transmitted via food or water to a human host via the faecal-oral route and can cause the gastrointestinal disease cyclosporiasis, which can be complicated by extra-intestinal disorders, particularly in immune-compromised people. Although more than 2 million children die each year from diarrhoeal diseases worldwide, it is not known to what extent cyclosporiasis is involved. Few epidemiological data are available on Cyclospora as a water-borne and food-borne pathogen in both underprivileged communities and developed countries. To gain an improved understanding of human cyclosporiasis, this Review describes the background of Cyclospora, summarises salient aspects of the pathogenesis, epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, and control of cyclosporiasis, and explores what is known about its prevalence and geographical distribution. The findings show that the effect on human health of cyclosporiasis is likely underestimated, and recommendations are made about areas of future research and the prevention and control of this disease within an international collaborative context.
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