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JOURNAL ARTICLE

Anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activity of bioactive hydroxyapatite/silver nanocomposites

Juan J Martínez-Sanmiguel, Diana G Zarate-Triviño, Rene Hernandez-Delgadillo, Astrid L Giraldo-Betancur, Nayely Pineda-Aguilar, Sergio A Galindo-Rodríguez, Moisés A Franco-Molina, Sara P Hernández-Martínez, Cristina Rodríguez-Padilla
Journal of Biomaterials Applications 2019 March 16, : 885328219835995
30880564
Biomaterials are often used in orthopedic surgery like cavity fillings. However, related complications often require long-term systemic antibiotics, device removal, and extended rehabilitation. Hydroxyapatite/silver (HA/Ag) composites have been proposed as implantation biomaterials owing to the osteogenic properties of hydroxyapatite and to the antimicrobial efficiency of silver. Nevertheless, higher silver concentrations induce cytotoxic effects. The aim of this study was to synthesize and characterize HA/Ag nanocomposites that will allow us to use lower concentrations of silver nanoparticles with better antimicrobial efficiency and anti-inflammatory properties. The characterization of HA/Ag was performed by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectra, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and laser diffraction. Bioactivity was evaluated under a simulated body fluid. The viability of osteoblast like-cells (MG-63) was determined by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide) and the antimicrobial activity was evaluated by the standard McFarland method. The detection of nitric oxide was measured by a colorimetric assay and the inflammatory cytokines by flow cytometry. We obtained particulate composites of calcium phosphates identified as hydroxyapatite and silver nanoparticles. The bioactivity of the HA/Ag nanocomposites on SFB was confirmed by apatite formations. The viability of MG-63 cells was not affected. We also found antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans owing to the presence of silver nanoparticles at non-cytotoxic concentrations. HA/Ag reduced the release of nitric oxide and decreased the secretion of IL-1 and TNF-α in cells stimulated with Lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In conclusion, the inflammatory and antimicrobial capacity of the HA/Ag nanocomposites, as well as its bioactivity and low cytotoxicity make it a candidate as an implantation biomaterial for bone tissues engineering and clinical practices in orthopedic, oral and maxillofacial surgery.

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