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Effect of antibiotic infused calcium sulfate/hydroxyapatite (CAS/HA) insets on implant-associated osteitis in a femur fracture model in mice

Lisa Oezel, Carina Büren, Armin O Scholz, Joachim Windolf, Ceylan D Windolf
PloS One 2019, 14 (3): e0213590
30870491
Cerament (Bonesupport Holding, Lund, Sweden) is a bioresorbable synthetic bone substitute consisting of calcium sulfate and hydroxyapatite which is successfully used as a bone graft in bone defects or in delayed and non-unions after fractures. Besides, calcium sulfate/ hydroxyapatite (CAS/HA) could have, attributed to its composition and osteoinductive properties, have great importance in the treatment of bone infections with critical size defects (CSD). Aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of antibiotic infused CAS/HA on inflammation and bone healing in an implant-associated osteitis mice model. In a standardized murine model, the left femur of 72 BALB/c mice were osteotomized, generating a CSD (2,5 mm) with stabilization through a 6-hole titanium locking plate. Osteitis has been induced through inoculation of Staphylococcus aureus (SA) into the fracture gap. To analyze the effect of CAS/HA, following groups were generated with either CAS/HA, CAS/HA with gentamycin (CAS/ HA-G) or CAS/HA with vancomycin (CAS/HA-V) insets placed into the osteotomy. Debridément and lavages were progressed on day 7 and 42 to determine the local bacterial growth and the immune reaction. Fracture healing was quantified on day 7 and 42 by x-ray and bone healing markers from blood samples. Progression of infection was assessed by estimation of colony-forming units (CFU) and immune response was analyzed by determination of Interleukin (IL)- 6 and polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) in lavage samples. Osteitis induced higher IL-6 and PMN-levels in the lavage samples on day 7. Both parameters showed a reduction in all groups on day 42. CAS/HA-V revealed a significant reduction of CFU and PMNs in lavage samples on day 42. A positive effect on bone healing could only be shown in non-infected mice. Whereas, application of mere CAS/HA in infected mice did show tendencies of bone destruction and lysis, independent of impregnation with antibiotics or not. Thus, application of CAS/HA in acute implant-associated infections is not recommended. In non-infectious environments or after infect-convalescence CAS/HA could albeit serve as a suggestive tool in trauma and orthopedic surgery.

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