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Malignant Sarcomatous Transformation of Benign Giant Cell Tumor of Bone after Treatment with Denosumab Therapy: A Literature Review of Reported Cases.

Curēus 2018 December 29
Giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB) is a biologically benign and locally aggressive tumor that most often affects the epiphyseal and metaphyseal sites of long bones in the young adult population. Overexpression of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL) by cancerous mesenchymal stromal cells stimulates a signal transduction cascade that recruits and activates multinucleated osteoclast-like giant cells, resulting in pathologic bone resorption. Denosumab, an RANKL inhibitor that blocks the RANKL-mediated osteoclast activation, has been recently approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of aggressive GCTB. Although uncommon, several studies reported drug-related malignant morphological transformation of benign GCTB following treatment with denosumab therapy. The aim of the article was to review the clinicopathological characteristics of all the reported cases of malignant sarcomatous transformation of GCTB after treatment with denosumab therapy in patients without any history of prior exposure to radiotherapy.

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