Penetration Depths of Conducted Electrical Weapon Probes Into Human Skull Phantoms

Stephan Andreas Bolliger, Silvan Gort, Beat Kaelin, Vera Barrera, Michael Josef Thali, Rosa Maria Martinez
American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology 2019 March 9
Occasional case reports have described isolated cases of conducted electrical weapon (CEW) probes piercing the human skull. In an experimental setting, we examined whether these cases were just unfortunate incidents, how deeply such probes can pierce the skull, and whether firing distance and CEW probe type play a role in the skull-piercing capability.We fired 5 different CEW cartridges (XP 10.6 m, XP 7.6 m, smart 10.6 m, smart 7.6 m, and smart probe 7.6 m) from 4 different distances (0.5, 1, 2, and 4 m) at head phantoms made of either 5- or 7-mm-thick polyurethane spheres covered with a thin layer of gelatine and buckskin. The piercing depths were recorded by computed tomographic scanning.All tested cartridges managed to pierce the head phantoms. Piercing depths of up to 6.6 mm in the 5-mm heads and depths of almost 5 mm in the 7-mm heads were recorded. Deepest piercing depths were attained with firing distances of 2 m or less.Our results showed that all tested CEW probes are capable of piercing the skull and that shorter firing distances tend to lead to deeper piercing depths.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Available on the App Store

Available on the Play Store
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"